The Rio de Janeiro

             

Geographical aspects

Relief

The city occupies the western side of Guanabara Bay and some of their islands (as Governor and Paqueta), and developed on narrow flood plains squeezed between mountains and hills. The Serra do Mar, Atlantic edge of the plateau, rises to the northwest, lying some 40 miles inland, and the metropolis of the inner boundary.

The Rio de Janeiro sits on three large massifs: the Pedra Branca, which crosses the city from east to west (which is the culmination of the municipality, the peak of Pedra Branca in 1024 meters) to Gericinó north (with the peak of Guandu, 900 meters) and the Tijuca or the Carioca, which erupted on hills and peaks, some covered with lush vegetation, great tourist interest: the peak of Tijuca (1,022 m) the Parrot's Beak (975 m), Andaraí (900 m), the Sugar Loaf (842 m) Corcovado (704 m), the Two Brothers (533 m) and Sugarloaf (395 m), which located at the entrance of the bay.
Its coastline is 197 kilometers long, includes more than 100 islands that occupy 37 km ², and unfolds in three parts, aimed at Sepetiba Bay, the Atlantic Ocean and the bay. Olitoral of Sepetiba Bay has a unique geographical feature of expression and the Restinga da Marambaia is sandy, and little cut down. The coast of the Guanabara Bay is cut down, encompasses many islands (such as the Governor of 29 square kilometers, local Galleon International Airport), and its margins, lie the shopping center and the seaside suburbs industriais.O Atlantic expressed considerable alternations, presenting either high, when in contact with the ramifications of the massive coastal Pedra Branca and Tijuca, sometimes down, piece by which to extend the beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema, Leblon, Barra da Tijuca and Playground Bandeirantes, all integrated into the urban landscape.
Several lakes, such as the Tijuca, Marapendi, Jacarepagua and Rodrigo de Freitas graduated from the lowlands, many of the marshy land has not completely drained.


Climate

The climate is tropical Atlantic, as Aw Köppen second model, the average annual temperature is 23.1 ° C.

Because it is a coastal city, the effect of wind is very noticeable, resulting in relatively low temperature ranges. The annual average maximum monthly average temperature is 26.1 ° C, and the mean monthly minimum, 20 ° C. The mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures measured in each month are, respectively, at 36.2 ° C and 13.8 ° C. July is the coldest month, with average maximum and minimum of 24 ° C and 17 ° C, and in January, the warmest (29 ° C and 23 ° C).

Summers are marked by hot, humid days, eventually overcoming the barrier of 40 ° C in isolated spots, while winters are mild and present with rainfall more restricted, with lows rarely below 10 ° C. Overall, the year may be divided into two seasons: a warm and relatively wet, mild temperatures and another, thus, add spring and fall to the characteristics of the other, in the case of more than intervals of transition seasons properly defined. Until today, the official record lowest temperature ever recorded occurred in the Field of Afonsos (4.8 ° C) in July 1928, and the highest in Bangalore (43.2 ° C) in January 1984.

Due to the high concentration of buildings in urban centers, further from the coast, is the common occurrence of heat islands, with thermometers surpassing the 40 ° C during the hottest months of the year. In these and other areas, we can see differences of a few degrees with respect to coastal areas, due to sea breezes.
The cumulative annual volume of rainfall is 1086 mm. The rains are concentrated in the months of December, January, February and March, becoming more sparse in the period from June to August. April and November have reasonable numbers, although lower than in months of higher rainfall. In about a third of the day (128), it rains. The months of October, November and January are on average 13 days in which there is occurrence of precipitation, December 14, February and September, 11, and June, July and August, 7. However, the bulk is observed in December (137 mm), January (125 mm), February (122 mm) and March (130 mm). Thunderstorms are not uncommon in summer, which invariably cause casualties, fatal or not, being the main reason for the landslides on the slopes of the city.

The relative humidity shows acceptable levels throughout the year. The average for the period before noon is at 84.6%, and after twelve o'clock, 70.8%. June, July and August have the lowest percentage in the afternoon: 69, 68 and 66% respectively.


Parks and public spaces

The city has major parks and ecological reserves, as the Tijuca National Park, considered "Environmental Heritage and Biosphere Reserve" by UNESCO, the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, the Complexo da Quinta da Boa Vista and the Botanical Gardens, the oldest of Brazil), the Zoo of Rio, the first national zoo, Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, which houses the high point of Rio de Janeiro: the peak of Pedra Branca, the Public Garden.


Environmental pollution

Due to the high concentration of industries in the metropolitan area, the Rio de Janeiro, like most big Brazilian cities, has faced serious problems of environmental pollution. The Guanabara Bay, victimized by the secular loss of mangrove areas, agonizes with waste from domestic and industrial wastewater, in addition to oil spills and the growing presence of heavy metals. Despite its waters are renewed converged to the sea, the bay is the receiving end of all the tributaries generated on its shores and in the watersheds of many rivers and streams that flow into it. More than 14 000 industrial establishments and fourteen marine terminal loading and discharge of oily products are among the main causes of pollution. The levels of particulate matter in air are also two times higher than recommended by the World Health Organization, in part because of the large fleet of vehicles. In a poll by the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo, Rio de Janeiro was named as the fifth most polluted capital of Brazil, behind São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte and Curitiba.
The waters of Sepetiba Bay slowly follow the path traced by the Guanabara Bay, although with different degradation characteristics. Household sewage produced by a population of about 1.29 million people directly degrade the sanitary quality of water when discharged untreated into gutters, streams or rivers. Regarding industrial pollution, toxic waste from large, equipped with high concentrations of heavy metals - particularly zinc and cadmium - already have been evicted over the years by factories in the industrial districts of Santa Cruz, Itaguaí and New Delhi, implanted under the guidance of state policies geared mainly to the polarization of industrial expansion in less congested areas.
Marapendi Lagoon Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon and have suffered with the leniency of the authorities and the advancement of condominiums on the site. The dumping of sewage by illegal and the resulting algal blooms decrease oxygenation of the water, causing fish kills. It is estimated that from the beginning of last century until today, the water surface of the lake has lost 40% of its original cover.

Some beaches of Rio, most of the year, are unfit for bathing. It is common after a big storm the formation of "black languages" in the sands of the beaches, arising from debris brought from the hills by the rains.
Second report of the Municipal Environment, part of Ipanema, Arpoador and Red Beach, and Bica, Guanabara and Central (Urca), are considered unsuitable for swimming, due to the sands that have high concentrations of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, which indicates the presence of garbage and feces.

There are, however, signs of pollution in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, one of the main postcards of Rio de Janeiro. A public-private partnership established in 2008 aims to ensure that by 2011, the lagoon waters are suitable for bathing. Remediation actions involving the planning of the bed, transferring sludge to large craters present in the lake itself and the creation of a new direct link with the sea and underground, which will help to increase the daily exchange of water between the two environments .
 

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